»Optimization« colloquially is often used as a synonym for »doing something better«. Mathematical optimization, however, means the targeted search for an optimal solution to a well-defined problem. For this purpose, the planning rules and objectives valid in the company are translated into a mathematical model that takes into account all conceivable solutions for the task at hand. To then solve this model, two requirements need to be met. First, data needs to be available, as this is the basis for decision making. Second, a powerful algorithm is needed, which can solve the optimization problem within the required response time. Given the ever-improving data availability of companies and continuous progress in solution algorithms, it is becoming increasingly possible to mathematically model planning tasks at faster and faster speeds.